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Topic #1: The History of Quality
Assignment #1: The Definition of Quality and Its Dimensions

Topic #2: Better Quality Improves Productivity
Assignment #2. Better Quality Increases Productivity

Topic #3: Assessment of Quality Costs
Assignment #3: Using Wendy’s or McDonald’s as an example, follow the instructions on the homework link. First, develop three ideas of non-conformities, three ideas of inefficient processes and three observations of costs of lost opportunities for sales revenue. Fill in the worksheet. Next, brainstorm costs of poor quality (including their categorization) and methods of obtaining numerical measures of the poor quality. That is, for each category of costs (Internal failure costs, External failure costs, Appraisal Costs, and Prevention costs), develop a minimum of two “costs” under each category and describe how specifically you would go about “measuring” and getting a dollar value for the loss for one of those. See the example on the worksheet. This measuring is difficult at times but still necessary if the cost is to be listed. For on line students, print and put your paper in your 3 ring binder.

Topic #4: Experientail Learning
To know the relevance of the topic that you are studying increases one’s interest and desire to learn the subject material. The video tape of a production manager and a service facility manager will give you an indication of the importance of quality in both production and service facilities.
Assignment #4: After listening to the interviews, write up a one page summary of the importance of quality in both organizations.

Topic #5: Quality Planning
In this session, the operational element of translating quality problems into specific projects is reviewed. Once many quality projects have been identified from different departments, different customers, about different products, from different customers, from employees, etc., the projects will need to be economically evaluated for potential cost and financial returns. Then a methodology for ranking and final selection of specific projects must be developed based on factors such as rates of return, criticality of operations, time to completion, probability of success and other factors. A methodology that utilizes these concepts is presented in the text. Obviously, the Pareto principle is important at this stage as a tool for ranking the vital few versus the trivial many projects. An example of the Pareto diagram is given in the text.

Topic #6: Process Flow Charts
Quality problems need to be operationally defined as elements in a PROCESS that produces goods and/or services. The process in which problems occur is oftentimes portrayed visually through the use of a flow process chart. Within that process, a particular problem or step is identified and targeted for more specific analysis. With that overview, the Japanese developed what they termed the “Seven Simple Tools” to identify, measure, and graphically portray and present quality problems. The Japanese have learned that the effective application of these simple tools can significiantly improve most quality problems. An excellent book on these 7 tools has been translated into English and is available through Productivity Press, Inc. and is titled “Handbook of Quality Tools – The Japanese Approach”.
ASSIGNMENT #5. While viewing the hamburger flow process chart, identify both quality inspection points (SQC) and process control points (SPC).

Topic #7: The Seven Simple Tools

With the concept of a process pictured by a flow process chart, the Japanese developed what they termed the “Seven Simple Tools” to identify, measure, and graphically portray quality problems.

(An excellent book on these 7 tools has been translated into English and is available through Productivity Press, Inc. and is titled “Handbook of Quality Tools – The Japanese Approach”.)

Assignment #6.

Topic 8: Structured Improvement Methodologies
Organized and structured approaches to solving quality problems have gained wide acceptance in industry. Six sigma and “blackbelts” and the 7 step quality improvement cycle are two well known methodologies. The 7 step improvement cycle method to be used in this course will be previewed.

Test #1

Test #1 will cover the material in Chapters 1 – 6 of the text. The test will have a time limit for completion (maximum time to complete the test is 1 hour however most should finish in 35 minutes or so). The test is multiple choice and is open book and open notes. Although I don’t believe that you will need a calculator, you may want to have one handy.

2. The test will be administered through the “Respondus Lockdown Browser” with the download link given You must download this link in order to take the test. Once you have downloaded this link, you will have an icon on your desktop indicating the Respondus Lockdown Browser. Close all of your other programs, then click on the icon, and you will be directed to Blackboard and then go to the test link under Test #1. If asked for a password, indicate that the instructor did not give you one. The computer will automatically put in the correct password.

Information about the Respondus Lockdown Browser is given at the follwoing

3. The test time window will be announced via e-mail or via the detailed course outline This time frame allows for each of you to fit the test into your own personal work and study schedule.

4. Just follow the instructions about Respondus (you might want to print out the information on Respondus from the link above). Once you start the test, your computer will be disabled except for testing purposes (and you will have the one hour time limit). Thus, be sure to set aside the uninterrupted time for the test. Most of you should do fine on the test if you have read the material, done the assignments, and are familiar with the text material (it is also open notes). Good luck. By the way, your test will be automatically graded for you and your score reported to you once you have hit the “submit” instructions under Respondus.

Topic #9: Steps 1 and 2 of the Improvement Cycle

Topic #10: Evaluating the Measurement System for Accuracy (Step #3 of Improvement Cycle)

An Excel spreadsheet called M330CHP7PROB1 has been developed to lead you in your study of these concepts. The file is found by clicking on the heading for this lesson.

I suggest that you click on the topical heading and you will see the file. Then, right click on the file and complete a “Save As” option and save the file to your own computer (e.g. under Mgt330Assignments folder). Once you have done that, open up Microsoft Excel, click on the open file icon, then go to the Mgt330Assignments folder and open the file. A completed Excel spreadsheet with an “Accuracy Study” at the top of the spreadsheet should appear.
Now, 1. Read the first four pages of chapter 7 of the text (pages 46-50).

2. ASSIGNMENT #8. Now go to the following web site to find a streaming video related to the process of determining the “accuracy” of a scale.

As an example of doing an accuracy study, I went to a local grocery store and used a hanging type vegetable scale. I proposed that a 5 lb. “calibrated” bag of rock salt was truely 5 lbs. Our objective was to see if the scale would then actually “measure” 5 pounds as the real weight. The procedure to actually weigh and record should be as follows. I placed the calibrated weight on the scale and recorded the reading to the nearest estimated hundredth of a pound. Following each weighing of the standard (5 lb. bag of salt) weight, I readjusted the scale and placed the weight on the scale in a slightly different position, then put the weight back on the scale and weighed it again to the nearest hundredth of a pound.

(a) I completed this procedure for 20 different readings and now you are to enter the data into the model spreadsheet under “Recorded Value” given in the Excel link titled M330CHP7PROB1.xls.

(b) Interpret the graph. That is, where you see the red writing in the dialog box, remove (delete) that material and type in an interpretation based on the data that you collected. As you enter the data, the graphs will automatically change shape to reflect your new data.

NOTE: The Excel spreadsheet has yellow dialoge boxes that will explain how to adjust the scaling, etc. However, you must interpret the chart information and discuss the accuracy (or inaccuracy) of the scale.

Topic #11: Gage Capability, R and R, and Blind Sampling

A measurement system must not only be accurate (see the previous session) but also be capable, precise and reliable. In fact, some consider precision of the measurement system more important than accuracy! In this session, a measure of gage precision and gage capability will be developed. Next, the problems of different people measuring the same item (reproducibility) will be presented. Finally, the validation of a measurement system that can withstand blind sampling and auditing will be stressed.

1. Read the remainder of Chapter 7 of the text.
2. ASSIGNMENT #9. Precision Study and Gage Capability: For the Precision Study and Gage Capability portion of the Excel Spreadsheet labeled M330CHP7PROB1 that is linked from the previous section (and should now be stored on your computer under your Mgt330Assignments folder), complete the Precision and Gage Capability Study in the text (bottom of page 56 and top of page 57) regarding differing length pencils by watching the streaming video link found under mms:// .
After you have filled in the tables in the workbook for your measurements (estimating to the nearest 1/32 of an inch), merely insert the measurements into the speadsheet into the designated spaces (you can type in values like 4 and 5/32nds as 4 5/32 and it should convert the value to a fraction equivalent). NOTE: As soon as you entered the new data, go to File, Save As, and save this new document under a new file name so that it can be differentiated from the previous file.


Once the data is entered, you might need to adjust the scales of the charts to look similar to the ones shown on the spreadsheet. Also, where the “red” writing described the previous data, you must replace that data with your own interpretation of the NEW DATA!


Blind Sampling Example: An airline ticket reservation system is interested in getting good baseline productivity information on the average time it takes for a agent to service a customer. The productivity manager suggested that an industrial engineer be assigned to randomly pick an agent, and when a call comes to that agent, use his stopwatch to measure to time to complete the task. Discuss how a blind sampling system could be set up and why such a blind sampling procedure may in fact produce better results. You can use the ?Insert Text Box? already provided on the spreadsheet to write your answer.


3. Read the Case Study given at the end of the chapter to see how the techniques apply to an actual consulting situation.

Topic #12 : Understanding and Responding to Variation
Variation is the ENEMY OF QUALITY!! However, most people have difficulty with correctly responding to variation given their inability to discriminate between random and special cause variation. The quincunx will be used to illustrate random variation while the famous “funnel experiment” will be used to illustrate how people have difficulty interpreting variation. Finally, the basic mathematical measures to assess variation (mean, standard deviation, range, etc.) will be introduced. Students will learn how to use Microsoft Excel to calculate the statistical measures and to graph histograms.

1. Read Chapter 8 in the text.
2. ASSIGNMENT #10. Complete the training information on designing Excel spreadsheet calculations relating to certain quality control procedures. The spreadsheet is attached as M330CHP8PROB.xls as an item under this heading. You will again best be advised to right click on the link, do a “save as” to your computer possibly under “Mgt330Assignments”, and the save. Then open up Microsoft Excel and use the “Open File” icon to find and open this file.

Note: The sample file of this exersize is also linked to as M330CHP8Example and the answer sheet (with formulas) is given as M330CHP8ExampleANSWERS. The file M330CHP8Example is the same that is used on the streaming videlo.

Topic #13: Is the Process in Control? (Step #4 of Improvement Cycle)
Process control systems will be defined along with some important philosophical concepts of process control. Next, reasons for assessing and gaining process control will be presented. After pictorially demonstrating the nature of statistical process control, a flow chart methodology for developing process control charts from trial data will be presented along with an example of the process using a standardized Excel plug in program.

1. Read Chapter 9 of the text.
2. ASSIGNMENT # 11. Complete homework exercise 1 on the calculation of control limit values using a hand calculator. Next, work problems 2,3 and 4 on solving quality control problems using Microsoft Excel. Use the file given under this heading labeled M330CHP9HWBOOK.xls for the exercise. Much of the work has been covered under you Echo lecture.

Topic #14: An Experiential Exercise in Control Charts
Statistical process control charts evolve dynamically, that is, from plotted point to plotted point. Books have the unfortunate problem of presenting them in a static, completed form. In order to have you psychologically experience the interpretation of control chart data, an experiential exercise will be performed so that you can “experience” the psychological problems of responding to information and also more thoroughly understand the control chart in reference to the decision making model it provides.

ASSIGNMENT #13. Complete the Control Chart from the first 20 samples as they are developed using the following streaming video.

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Once the basic chart has been developed and control limits have been drawn on the chart, use the streaming video below to understand the nature of control limits to detect potential shifts in the process averages. Plot your results on the control chart.

Complete your control chart and put in your workbook for submission at a later date.

Topic #15: Refinements to the Interpretation of Control Charts
Statistical process control charts are constructed to discriminate between random and non-random behavior. A variety of signals of non-random behavior are presented. Additionally, other technical considerations and modifications of control charts for sample sizes and frequency of sampling are addressed as are concerns about rational subgrouping.

1. Read the remainder of Chapter 10 of the text.
2. Review the homework problems given in the link within the subfolder. Answers are included for you to develop an understanding of the refinements in QC charts that are sometimes made. You are not required to hand in this assignment but will be responsible for the material on the next test.

Topic #16: Step #5 – Identifying and Eliminating Out of Control Conditions
Step #5 of the Improvement Cycle is discussed, that being, the identification and elimination of special causes of variation. This difficult step in the improvement cycle gives some hints on what the charts indicate about the special cause.

1. Read Chapter 11 in the text notes.

Topic #17: The Individuals Chart (x and Moving Range Chart)
The x and mR charts are used to describe ratio data that has a single data point collected at each sampling interval. For example, the number of employees reporting each day only has a single data point and not 5 sample points in a single sample. Likewise, when sampling a chemical tank for pH, one sample is taken since the tank is assumed to have a homogeneous mixture. The equations for the x and mR chart are slightly different from the x-bar and R charts but the general interpretation of out of control conditions is generally the same with minor adjustments.
Read Chapter 12 of the text (pages 103 – 106) about x and mR charts.
ASSIGNMENT #14. Work problem #1 in the exercises of Chapter 12. This exercise will have you develop an x and mR chart in Microsoft Excel. You can find a partially completed format under the link for this section.

Topic #18: Attribute Charts: The p chart, c chart and u chart
Attribute data of the good/defective type classification system must be described by a series of special control charts based on the particular nature of the attribute data. The charts are generally referred to as p charts, c charts, and u charts. For these charts, great care must be given to the operational definitions of the classification system being used. Additionally, a series of other common mistakes results in many poor applications of p charts. These problems will be addressed. However, the attribute charts can be wisely used as the data collection can often cost less per observation and out of control conditions can still be identified. Examples of each type of chart will be given and sample problems for each type will be developed.

1. Read the remainder of Chapter 12 on Attribute charts (pages 107 to 118).
Topic #19: Step #6: Process Capability Interpretations
Process capability is oftentimes confused with process control. The two terms are different. Process control refers to the process stability to generate a given mean and standard deviation over time. Process control refers to the ability of the process to produce individual units of output within the specification limits. Being able to visualize the statistical pattern of individual item output in relationship to the specification limits provides a quick visual reference to the analyst about the process capability. A statistical measure called the Cpk has been developed to provide all processes with a similar measure of process capability.

Read Chapter 13 up through page 128.
ASSIGNMENT #16. Work problems 1 – 3 by hand calculator and complete the data sheets.

Topic #20: Step 6: Calculating Cpk and Percent Defectives from an Excel Spreadsheet
The process capability measure called Cpk can be calculated from the same data that was used to calculate the control chart. Several new equations need to be added to the spreadsheet. In addtion, the percentage of potential defective units both above the upper specification limit and below the lower specification limit can also be calculated. These equations and additions to the Excel spreadsheet will also be presented.

1. Read Chapter 13 pages 128 – 131.
2. ASSIGNMENT #17. Work problems 4 and 5 on page 133. You will merely be adding the new calculations to your old file that you saved from the M330CHP9HWBOOK.xls with the out of control conditions eliminated. You will find an updated link under this section (M330Chp13HWANSProblem4and5Format.xls) that should guide your work. Be sure to look at the tab for PROBLEM #3 at the bottom of the page. Problem #3 is worked for you with example formulas. You merely need to complete problem #4 using the same analysis (see tab at the bottom of the page for problem #4).

Experimental design is a faster, more efficient and more robust method for testing a variety of improvement ideas. Historically, experimental testing of improvement ideas was undertaken one factor at a time (called OFAT testing). Experimental design (especially screening experiments) tests many factors all at one time. Although many would think that such a procedure would be difficult and unwise technically, such is not the case. An introduction to the logic behind screening experiments is given. Additionally, a methodology is introduced to generate as many improvement ideas as possible and a methodology for selecting the actual factors for testing.

Read pages 134 to 146 in Chapter 14 of the text.
Read several articles from the Resources section to gain an appreciation for the interesting and effective use of DOE in a variety of situations.

Topic #22: An Experimental Design Screening Example


As an example of testing for multiple improvement ideas simultaneouly, a specific company example will be given. In this welding company example, 7 different improvement factors are tested at one time. The results of the experiment indicate which factors will need to be implemented to improve the process with the least cost.

Read pages 147 – 155 of the Chapter 14 of the text.
ASSIGNMENT #18. Work problems #1 and #2 of page 156 and 157. First print out the format worksheet for these two problems given as a link. This work will include answering each step of the analysis used in the Lawrence welding company example (8 different steps). Place your completed work in your assignment folder and prepare all assignments to be handed in.

For those taking the class ON CAMPUS, be prepared to turn in your workbooks of 18 different assignments at the time given in the announcements. The complete list of projects to date are given in a link under this heading.

For those taking the class ON LINE, please send in your workbook to me ASAP to the following UTM address

Dr. Ed Knight
College of Business and Public Affairs
University of Tennessee at Martin
Martin, Tenn. 38238
Be prepared for the test at the next class session that covers the 7 step improvement cycle on all of its individual parts.

Test #2
An on-line test of the material covered in the 7 step improvement cycle (Weeks 6 – 12) will be given. A sample test (with questions in a qualitative format rather than multiple choice) is provided for the first 6 steps only. Since you would have intensely studied DOE for the last homework, that has not been covered on the sample test. However, Chapter 14 and DOE will be on the test.

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