Linguistics Proposal Examples

Linguistics Proposal Examples

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Introduction- Linguistics Proposal Examples

Problem Statement & Significance – Linguistics Proposal Examples

In the modern era, the influence of western languages (particularly English), as languages of both the traditional colonizers and the present dominant civilization, on Arabic is the more serious and widespread than that of any other languages of today (Boyle 2012, Mahmoud 2013, Newman 2002, Vasteegh 2010). With the modern technological and cultural developments that have taken place in the world and their recent echoes in the Arab world, an urgent need has arisen for transferring many technical concepts into Arabic in many fields. As a result, Arabic finds itself face to face with an immense number of foreign terminology. In the last four decades, Arabic media in general and Arabian Gulf media in particular has been invaded by tens of foreign elements borrowed from English language to fill a lexical need in written Arabic due to the strong presence of English in the various spheres of life. In the context of Arab Gulf states, English is employed in education, mass media, translation work, commercial and economic links and the Internet which possibly represent points of contact that certainly facilitate and reinforce the borrowing process from English into Arabic. Furthermore, as Weber reports, “many laborers in the Gulf hail from former English colonies (Pakistan and India) where English still exists as an important language. English, therefore, acts as a key lingua franca among different expatriate nationalities and between Arabs and expatriates … In some Gulf countries, the expatriate population makes up over 81%” (Weber 2011: 63). As a result, the presence of this large number of expatriate labor force represents another source of influence of the accommodation of English borrowings into Arabic. When borrowed, not only the phonological and morphological shapes of loanwords are modified, the meaning of such loans may also undergo significant adaptations. The focus in this study, therefore, will be only the semantic implications of English loanwords as used in Arabic online newspapers of Arab Gulf states.

Research Aims & Objectives – Linguistics Proposal Examples

This present study focuses on how English words that are used in technology and social media are integrated morphologically into Colloquial Saudi Arabic. This integration process gives foreign words a flavor of the native language so that they can be used in SA contexts and discourse. The morphological mechanism that applied to loanwords is a part of Arabicizaion process where loanwords are remodeled or reshaped in order to accommodate the Arabic morphological or syntactic patterns. This study only accounts for the phenomenon of the morphological integration of English loanwords that occurs in gender, number, word-formation, pronouns, and definite articles in order to find out the most prominent morphological changes that are used in integrating loanwords into the SA syntactic system.

This study limits itself to studying the morphological integration of most recent English loanwords from computer technology and social media in Colloquial Saudi Arabic, so the study is synchronic in type; it focuses on certain grammatical aspects of these loanwords rather than their history. Despite the fact that there are many linguists studying loanwords in Arabic, weather MSA or some Arabic dialects such as colloquial Jordan Arabic, Hadrami Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, Egyptian Arabic, Saudi Arabic, some researches have not discussed very recent English words or terms used in social media. Some researches discuss English terms used in technology and how they were integrated into the recipient language. Other linguists limit their researches to semantic changes, while others focus on the sociolinguistic factors in using loanwords. In fact, some parts of this present study benefit from couple of Arabic scholars in discussing the morphological integration of the English loanwords through gender and numbe The semantics of English borrowings found in Arab Gulf States newspapers (AGSNs) will be investigated from three points of view:

  1. A general analysis of Arabic loanwords from English will be carried out to know the extent of lexical borrowing in various significant semantic fields and which domains are most likely to borrow from.
  2. My principal concern, however, is to examine the semantic changes the borrowed items may undergo in the course of lexical borrowing and discuss the main factors that may lie behind such semantic directions.
  3. The issue of linguistic synonymy in Arabic, as a consequence of lexical borrowing on one hand and as analogical derivation (?ištiqa:q) of native neologisms on the other, will be taken into consideration.

Literature Review – Linguistics Proposal Examples

The semantic study of English loanwords in Arabic has received scant attention in the literature in comparison to loanword phonology and loanword morphology. In terms of generative phonology, Thornburg (1980) studies 283 English words as used in East District Saudi Arabic. Alterations made in consonantal segments and sequences in such English loans and their effects on Arabic phonology are examined. Thornburg comes out with a set of phonological rules which she calls “borrowing rules”. Heath (1989) deals with the issues of borrowing and code-switching but in Moroccan Arabic. Heath’s study indeed is a thorough coverage of the post-colonial linguistic contact in Morocco. Borrowings from western languages, mainly French and Spanish, as well as from Classical Arabic are morphophonemically and semantically (just patterning the loans into their lexical domains) analyzed. Code-switching from these languages are dealt with, by the author, as “an avenue to borrowing”. The only semantic study of loanwords that I came across is Bader (1990). The study, however, focuses only on the semantic change of loanwords borrowed by Jordanian Arabic (JA) from English and French. It examines the different semantic forms like widening, narrowing, transfer, and shift that loanwords in JA may undergo. The main difference between Bader’s study and the present one is that the former deals with loanwords as used in a dialect or a colloquial variety of Arabic, i.e. JA while the latter deals with loanwords as used in a standard variety of Arabic , i.e. Arabic media language (AML). The difference lies in the fact that loanwords elements used in each variety are, in most cases, not the same. Al-Qinai (2000) investigates certain morphophonemic changes that loanwords have undergone to conform to Arabic phonotactics and morphological patterns in the light of traditional insights and implications made forward by Sibawayh, al-Jawhariyy, al-Jawaliqiyy, etc. Regarding, the loanword corpus used, the analysis draws heavily on old borrowings from Persian, Greek, Syriac, etc. which entered Classical Arabic in pre-Islamic and Medieval periods and which were already recognized by the Medieval scholars. From the point of morphology, Al-Saidat (2011) examines the gender and number assignment of English loanwords in Jordanian Arabic. He concludes that English loanwords in Jordanian Arabic follow the Arabic language system rather than the English language system.

Research Methodology – Linguistics Proposal Examples

Study Design

This section will discuss the research methods that are applied to achieve research’s aims and objectives. It includes description of research philosophy, approach, and research design. It also includes data collection and analysis methods that is used in this research to make an informed procedure to study the morphological integration of recent english loanwords used in computer technology and social media in colloquial saudi Arabic.. The main purpose of this section is to present selected research methods with proper justification in terms of their appropriateness with research questions.

Study Population & Sampling

Data collection method

Inductive and deductive are two types of research approaches that enable the researcher to determine a logical way to present data in this research. Inductive approach includes development of observation on the basis of responses obtained in the context of research issue. Deductive approach includes development of theory in order to reject or select research hypotheses. Both these approaches are opposite from each other in term of nature and procedure of addressing research problem (Schroeder, Clark and Cathey, 2011). The selection of research approach is based on nature of research topic and its suitability with selected research philosophy. Inductive approach is applied in this research rather than deductive. The reason behind this is the suitability of inductive approach with interpretive philosophy and deductive approach with positivism. Hence, we will collect facts related to various loan words from various online and computer technological channels. It will be gathered from Saudi users, particularly the young users of social media (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Snap, Ask Me, and various blogs) and from popular you tube videos and computer technology like Instagram, linkedin etc. using self-observation method.

 

Data Analysis & Sample collection – Linguistics Proposal Examples

The sample in this study consists of 500 loanwords using self-observation method. It will be gathered from Saudi users, particularly the young users of social media (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Snap, Ask Me, and various blogs) and from popular you tube videos and computer technology like Instagram, linkedin etc. The study focuses on the most recent English elements that have been incorporated into Arabic in the modern age. Further, the brand names (car brands, goods brands, etc.) have been excluded, too. Categories of this kind usually belong to what is sometimes known in the literature as “modern internationalisms” or “globalisms”, words or expressions used by the inhabitants of the global village and usually incorporated from different languages, not necessarily from English alone. Each element in the collected data, then, is recoded one time and the frequency of occurrence of the same element is not accounted for data analysis. This collected data will be then analyzed as per the important morphological aspects that occur in gender, number, word-formation, pronouns, and definite articles in Colloquial Saudi Arabic.

Summary

The present paper investigates the semantics of English loanwords in Arabic media language (AML). The loanword data are collected from a number of Arab Gulf states newspapers (AGSNs). They are analyzed semantically from the points of view of semantic change, semantic domains, and the phenomenon of synonymy resulting from lexical borrowing. The semantic analysis has revealed that AML borrowings from English occur in fifteen distinctive semantic domains. Domains that are related to terms of technical and scientific nature are found ranking much higher (9% – 18%) than those domains containing nontechnical elements (1% – 8%) with the computer and technology category (18%) is the most dominant domain. Almost all common mechanisms of semantic change (extension, restriction, amelioration, pejoration, and metaphorical extension) are found at work in the context of AML borrowings. The tendency of semantic change in the overwhelming majority of AML borrowings is towards restriction. Factors like need, semantic similarity, and factors of social and psychological considerations (e.g. prestige, taboo) seem to be the potent factors at interplay in semantic change. The first two, i.e. need and semantic similarity, are the most common reasons in most types of semantic change. The problem of synonymy lies in those loanwords that have “Arabic equivalents” in the language. The study claims that this phenomenon could be attributed to the two simultaneous processes of lexical borrowing

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