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Managerial Accounting Case
In this case a full set of budgets will be prepared and presented in appropriate format. Reports will be prepared to explain how budget numbers were determined. The following are general requirements for this budget case. Specific requirements are listed after the relevant case data.
• Read the case and analyze the information.
• Prepare an operating budget in standard “income statement” format.
• Prepare a narrative report (or notes to the income statement) addressing why/how quantitative items were selected. The following items must be explained
1. Sales Forecast
2. Purchases budget (raw materials, labor, all resources)
3. Operating Expenses
• Prepare a cash budget using any acceptable format. The following items must be explained or shown on the budget
1. The process by which cash inflows were projected.
2. The process by which cash outflows were projected.
3. The process by which financing, if applicable, was determined.
4. How interest and other financing charges were calculated.
• Prepare a capital budget using any acceptable format.
You will be graded on your understanding of the underlying concepts related to determining budget amounts (for example, how purchases are determined) as well as your ability to prepare and explain standard business reports. The rubric attached as the last page of this document will be used to grade the case.
Harvey Manufacturing manufactures and sells two industrial products: a self-balancing screw driver and a self-balancing saw. Both products are manufactured in a single plant.
Harvey’s general manager, Mr. Lipscomb, and president, Mr. Owens, want a budget prepared for each quarter of the fiscal year 2013. They have asked various employees to gather information that they believe will be necessary for preparation of a budget. The information is presented below.
Neither Mr. Lipscomb nor Mr. Owens is skilled in budget preparation. Both executives have used budgets and have participated to some degree in budget preparation in prior years, but neither has prepared a full budget.
Sales in units and selling price (SP) in dollars per unit
Historical sales for 2012 for each of the two products are shown below.
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Harvey’s sales typically peak in the summer months, beginning with May. Harvey’s general manager, Mr. Lipscomb, recommends that the budget be prepared with the units sold in the high sales months of May, June, and July be used as the bases for determining the annual forecast. Mr. Lipscomb’s recommendation is that annual sales be budgeted at 64,000 units per month for screwdrivers and 42,000 units per month for saws.
Mr. Lipscomb also believes that the budgeted selling price per unit should be equal to the highest selling price that could be achieved in 2012. He would like to budget $102 per unit for screwdrivers and $130 per unit for saws. Mr. Lipscomb states that his management team experimented with pricing in the prior year, beginning with the first month of the year.
You review the unit sales and unit selling price information for 2012 and recommend a budget based on 60,000 units of screwdrivers at $100 each and 40,000 units of saws at $125 each. Mr. Lipscomb challenges your conclusion. Likewise Mr. Owens, the company president, would like to hear an explanation of the budget numbers and how or why you calculated those numbers.
Each unit produced requires the following materials, labor, and overhead, all of which is variable. The company applies variable overhead on the basis of direct labor hours.
Inventories are listed below. The beginning inventories are the actual amounts on hand at the beginning of the year. The ending inventories shown are the amounts that the operations manager has determined to be necessary to ensure smooth production processes in the following quarter.
Fixed manufacturing overhead
Fixed manufacturing overhead is $214,000, including $156,000 of non-cash expenditures.
Fixed manufacturing overhead is allocated on total units produced.
Beginning cash is $1,800,000.
Sales are on credit. Sales are collected 50 percent in the current period and the remainder in the next period. There are no bad debts.
Sales for the last quarter were $8,400,000.
Purchases for direct materials and labor costs are paid for in the quarter acquired.
Manufacturing overhead expenses are paid in the quarter incurred.
Selling and administrative expenses are all fixed and are paid in the quarter incurred.
Estimated selling and administrative expenses for the next period are $340,000 per quarter, including $90,000 of depreciation.
FOR THE FIRST QUARTER OF 2013
1. Prepare a sales budget in good form.
2. Prepare a narrative report explaining how your sales budget was determined. Use the table above in your analysis. (Hint: Many companies would develop their budgets using average sales and average unit costs.)
Whatever budget determination method you use should be explained. In your explanation, you should include a discussion of why you believe sales and selling prices fluctuated last year.
3. Prepare a production budget in units.
4. Prepare a purchases budget. Remember that you will need to purchase enough materials to have the required ending inventories shown. You will also need to purchase enough to manufacture and sell the products on your sales forecast. Do not forget that you have beginning inventories.
5. Prepare a narrative report explaining how you prepared the purchases budget. Be as detailed as necessary to be sure that the president and general manager will understand the calculations and costs.
6. Prepare a manufacturing cost budget. Optional: Prepare a budgeted income statement.
7. Prepare a contribution margin income statement.
8. Prepare a narrative report explaining how the expenses on the income statement were determined.
9. Prepare a cash budget. Be sure that you show all cash inflows and outflows.
10. Prepare a narrative report explaining your cash budget process.
11. If necessary, prepare a capital expenditure budget. Explain your entries. Use only the facts in this case to prepare the budget.
Your finished case will consist of six or seven budgets (a sales budget, a production budget in units, a purchases budget, a budgeted income statement, a contribution margin income statement, a cash budget, and, if necessary, a capital expenditure budget.)
You will also have four or five narrative reports (a sales budget report, a purchases budget report, an income statement report, a cash budget report, and an explanation of your capital budget, if necessary).
Narrative reports are reports that are in the form or a white paper that clearly explains the numeric entries on your budgets. The length of the narrative reports will depend on the particular report. In general, you should be able to prepare the sales budget report on one or two pages, the purchases budget report on one or two pages, the income statement report on one page, and the cash budget report on one page.
In this case, the capital budget report would be less than one page. You should not worry if one of your reports is more or less than the recommendation given here—just be sure you cover all of the important points and satisfactorily explain the numeric entries in your budget. Also, be sure you explain the process of “how” your numbers were determined. In this regard, it is not necessary or desirable to explain the exact calculations. Consider your audience and prepare a report that would be suitable for executives making plans and decisions for the upcoming year.
1Harvey’s budget is adapted from a published case.
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