Research -AW -Q1

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1. Introduction

The purpose of this study was made analyze the progress as well as relation of human resource management based on ratio of men and women workforce at corporate level, especially for decision making position as well as those at the higher hierarchy of the management level to have equal opportunities for women and men at workplace. Most of the research result shown that most of the organizations are formed by and for men that are also based on men’s experiences. Over the past decades, although women had been aggressively fight in all aspects of life to enter into the workforce by competitive value added dedications to become equal with men, competitiveness and leadership capabilities are still accordance to personalities stereotypically which correlate to toughness, aggressiveness and decisiveness of men workforce (Patcharin Hansatit, 2014).
1.1 Research Objectives
– To analyze the development of workplace gender equality
– To study the effect of workplace gender equality in an organization
– To evaluate impact of human resource management on workplace gender equality
– To evaluate the consequence of workplace gender equality towards organization performace
1.2 Research Questions
– How did workplace gender equality progress over the years?
– How does workplace gender equality impact to an organization?
– How does workplace gender equality influence human resource management?
– How does workplace gender equality consequence the performance in an organization?
2. Literature Review
2.1 Definition of Key Concepts
2.1.1 Workplace Gender Equality
Regardless of men or women, both should enjoy same benefits, equal chances in participating into new opportunities opening; enjoy same status no matter at workplace or into relation to family and caring as well as any other fair treatments among men and women at workplace. When the above mentioned in practice, this is when workplace gender equality achieved (Workplace Gender Equality Agency, 2016).
2.1.2 Workplace Gender Equality Act

The Workplace Gender Equality Act 2012 is a strengthened legislation replacing Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Act 1999 which improved and promote equal treatment to both women and men at the workplace. This act support equal participation for both men and women at workplace which will at the same time make improvement in productivity and competitiveness in the workforce (Workplace Gender Equality Agency, 2016).

2.1.3 Men and Women at workplace


Both men and women are having the same perceptions about gender differences in terms of characters, behaviors, attitude etc for men at women at workplace. Topic for men and women at workplace had been discussed in numerous global sessions over the years and there are massive influxes of women into corporate industries over the world. There are more and more women involving into the corporate industries and many countries around the world had started to offer and encourage equal opportunities for women to be involved into the corporate industries (International Labor Organization, Dec 2007).

3. Research Design and Methodology

3.1 Research Paradigm
Research paradigm is referring to guidance or patterns used to interpret process, procedures and theoretical points in simplified way as assumption structure which assist researchers in research process. There are two elements for research paradigm which is phenomenological paradigm and positivistic paradigm.
3.1.1 Phenomenological Paradigm
Phenomenological paradigm refers to a research methodology which perception to be socially constructed and subjective, the observer will be part of the observation more towards to human interests. The focus of this paradigm is the complete understanding of the research and development of ideas are mainly from generation of data (John Dudovskiy, July 2016).
As the subject of workplace gender equality is subjective and depending on individual perception. Hence, Phenomenology method shall be apply in this research to observe individual perception on the gender equality issue.
3.1.2 Positivistic Paradigm
Positivistic paradigm refers to a research methodology which perception to be objective, based on independency of an observer, focusing on hypothesis formulation and reduced complicities of the research fundamental (John Dudovskiy, July 2016).
3.2 Research Design
Research design is referring to a way the researcher consolidate different elements of a research logically and rationally as an overall strategy to ensure the research progress in a more effective way. Research design comprises of data collection outline, measurement of data as well as data analysis (De Vaus, 2016).
3.2.1 Descriptive Research
Descriptive research is a design of research involving quantitative method and sometimes the mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods. This research design is used when the researcher has complete understanding on the concepts, the parties involved and the actual situation of the research then develop and descript the observations.
Descriptive research method shall apply in this research as observation can be done at common workplace to identify the perception among the group.
3.2.2 Exploratory Research
Exploratory research is a design of research involving qualitative method by conducting interviews, observations and content analysis. This research design is used when the researcher has an idea on the concepts, understanding the parties involved and the actual situation of the research.
3.2.3 Explanatory Research
Explanatory research is a design of research involving qualitative methods and hypothesis test by studying the relevant and available theories then derive the hypothesis.

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3.3 Research Methodology
Research methodology is a process of data collection and gathering of information which involved interviews, surveys, public data research on present and historical information. There are two commonly used methodologies in research process which is called quantitative method and qualitative method.
3.3.1 Quantitative Method
Quantitative method refers to conclusive data collection based on facts by calculation, evaluation of facts and normally presented in table or graph which will show investigation and evidence evaluation is done in the research (S. Rajasekar, P. Philominathan, V. Chinnathambi, 2013).
In this research, quantitative method will be used as the subject of gender equality at workplace needed statistic comparison for justification.
3.3.2 Qualitative Method
Qualitative method refers to data collection based on explanation and descriptions of reasons. Whereby justification is made without calculation, evaluation of facts and cannot be presented in table or graph in the research (S. Rajasekar, P. Philominathan, V. Chinnathambi, 2013).
3.4 Data Collection Method
Data collection is a process of gathering information in research. There are two types of methods for data collection used in research which is called primary data and secondary data.
3.4.1 Primary Data
Primary data is in a form of raw data collected from direct sources by conducting personal interviews, surveys, questionnaire on specific subject or focused group for a specific purpose (Enotes, 2014).
3.4.2 Secondary Data
Secondary data also called second-hand data which are available either on the internal or physical form of journals, articles, newspapers, books, etc (Enotes, 2014).
In this research, secondary data will be used as the factors of gender equality may be vary and had been widely discussed globally and a lot of pass data is available for used.
3.5 Sampling Method
In this study, random sampling method will be adopted as this method promote equal chances.
3.6 Accessibility
Current technology enhancement enabling researcher to access to information in easier way via e-books, internet as well as gathering information through wider group of people.
3.7 Ethical Consideration
In this research process, it is important to ensure that the data or information used is authentic and accurate with supported sources. Confidentiality of personal information is as well important.
3.8 Data Analysis Plan
The collected data will be presented in tables and graphs showing the data comparison. Moreover, this will show outcome and examine the relation of independent and dependent variables.
Questions on checklist of Research Ethics Application Form (Stage 1)
1. Will your research study involve any external organisation for which separate research ethics clearance is required (e.g. National Health Service – NHS, Social Services, Ministry of Justice)?
2. Will your research study involve individuals aged 16 years of age and over who lack capacity to consent and will therefore fall under the Mental Capacity Act (2005)?
3. Will your research study collect, use or store any human tissue/DNA including but not limited to serum, plasma, organs, saliva, urine, hairs and nails?
4. Will your research study involve medical research with humans, including clinical trials?
5. Will your research study administer drugs, placebos or other substances (e.g. food substances, vitamins) to human participants?
6. Will your research study cause (or could cause) pain, physical or psychological harm or other negative consequences to human participants?
7. Will your research study involve the researchers and/or participants in the potential disclosure of any information relating to illegal activities; or observation/handling/storage of material which may be illegal?
8. Will your research study with respect to human participants or stakeholders involve any deliberate deception, covert data collection or data collection without informed consent?
9. Will your research study involve interventions with children and young people under 16 years of age?
10. Will your research study relate to military sites, equipment, weapons or the defence industry?
11. Will your research study risk damage or disturbance to culturally or spiritually significant objects or places, or human remains?
12. Will your research study involve genetic modification, or use of genetically modified organisms above that of routine class one activities?
13. Will your research study contain elements you (or members of your team) are not trained to conduct?
14. Will your research study potentially reveal incidental findings related to human participant health status?
Over the past decades, women are fighting very hard in all aspects of life to become equal with men including at workplace. Women have made enormous advances in education and also their career but treatment over them in terms of salary, opportunities of promotion, ranking in higher management level still less equal (Nicole Parcheta, Xtreme Trips HS Belal A. Kaifi, Trident University International Nile M. Khanfar, Nova Southeastern University 2013). Men still chosen to play the main role or hold the important positions such as managerial in the corporate world. The representation of women steadily decline when moving up the management level.
Based on recent research at Australia, most of the organizations do not see gender equality as one of the importance in business strategies, even if initiative was there but not linked to overarching strategy. In some cases, fair treatment in gender equality may have real dollar-impact when results show better decision making, lower turnover and high morale (Marcus Costello). The concept of workplace gender equality is for all to develop their personal abilities even with different behaviors, aspirations or needs for male and female to choose without limitations set by strict gender roles to be considered, valued and favoured equally.
Fairness treatment to all genders, no matter men or women to be equal, even in different treatment but should be equivalent in all aspects, in terms of rights, benefits, obligation and opportunities (Etta Olgiati and Gillian Shapiro 2002). This research is also to emphasize the importance of not discriminating as well to enable all men and women to show or to reach their best potential in the workplace to create organization environment that enable all aspects get rewarded fairly, without discrimination in all basis. The past researches shown improvement for gender equality in workplace. However, there is no study provides a picture on how gender equality improve corporate business

Paper Details Research Objectives/ Questions Key Variables Methodology Finding / Results Future Research Recommendations

-Year of publication

-Article title.

-Journal title (in italics)

followed by [e-journal]

-Volume & issuenumbers and page numbers

-website name & address,

and the date accessed


  -Independent variables

-Dependent variable


– Research philosophy or design

– Research approaches

– Research strategy

– Research time horizon

– Data collection methods

– Population and  Sampling procedures

– Data analysis

Mustaffa C &Ilias M 2013,   Intercultural Communication Studies. UUMM Determine the relationship between students adjustment factor and cross cultural adjustment Academic adjustment, personal-emotion and environmental factors. Quantitative design. According to Ipsos (2008), 186 sets of questionnaires were distributed by the researcher, 135 sets (constituting a sample of 36% of the total international student population at CAS). In general, the results indicated that there was a positive relationship between academic adjustment, personal-emotion and environmental factors with foreign students’ adjustment at UUM. Overall, foreign students at UUM perceived that the support they received will also influence their adjustment to UUM.  
Harrison K & Elizabeth V, 2012 The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad Wake Forest University.



To investigate the cross-cultural adjustment

of study abroad students and the associated impact of two personality variables — emotional  intelligence and entrepreneurial attitude orientation.

Quantitative method using a sample of 456 students was surveyed via e-mail, 191 total responed. Individuals with higher self-emotional appraisal, higher others’ emotional appraisal, and higher use of emotion exhibited stronger general adjustment than those who scored lower on these dimensions. Dependent variable of cross-cultural adjustment, as well as the independent variables of emotional Intelligence and entrepreneurial attitude orientation.  

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