Sociology -Q18 Online Services
Q1. Discussion of four steps in emergency.
Step1: Noticing Something Unusual
As we are engaged in our daily life, it is quite obvious; we do not notice things and happenings around us. There is no doubt that we might miss clues that something unusual or unexpected is happening around us. If one happened to zero insight as well as sound, they will move on to next step. If they do not care, they will move onto their usual lives. It is also witnessed that people who are in hurry will show less concern to notice things around them.
Step2: defining situation as an emergency .
If something unusual is noticed or going on, then there is need to determine what the happening is around and whether it needs attention or not. Sometimes an emergency situation is viewed as less important by people and they do not react to it immediately. The other times, people are found to be looking at each other to decide whether the situation in front is an emergency or not. Such an approach is termed as pluralistic ignorance in sociology (Aleskerov et al.2016).
Step3: Responsibility taking The next steps come is about taking responsibility to help the person in need. If it happens to be one person there, then there will be the great responsibility to be felt by that person. But, there is more than one individual, and then there will be diffusion of responsibility to occur. The concepts of bystander effect will take place at this step. As more number of people present at the spot of emergency, less responsibility will be felt by each person toward helping the person in need (West, 2016).
Step 4: Deciding what it will take Some emergency case will need special skills from the person who wants to provide help to the person in need. For example, if someone is drowning and rescued, they will need cardiopulmonary resuscitation and if the person who wants to helps is unable. Then, he will show less likeliness towards helping him. If someone does not know or believe that they have the capacity to do and what it takes. Then, he will not provide any help to that person (Mayes, 2016).
Q2.Based on data answer the following
a. evolutionary theory of aggression and justification.
The evolutionary theory of aggression states that aggression can be defined as an innate response. It suggests that human beings are aggressive because it is a process of natural selection. It also suggested that the aggressive traits are passed down to us from our ancestors. As we are offspring, it is passed down to us through genes. The theory explained that our male ancestors were happened to be aggressive in nature as they have to compete and eliminate the other male out of competition in order to ensure successful reproductive chances. They were also aggressive to protect their children and partner and bring them resources required to survive in the natural environment (Thompson, 2015).
The results do not support the evolutionary theory of aggression as the result show the data of murders gathered from different countries. The murders are actually related to nature of person, psychological and mental state of the person. Sometimes, it happened to be cases of situation that are not under control. Most of the murders occurred around the world are intentional. Evolutionary theory state that male possess aggressive nature due to its animal instincts but the murders are also committed by the female. Today, human beings are more evolved and civilized so that it cannot be said that murders happened due to inherent characteristics of genes of our ancestors.
b. Temperature theory of aggression and justification.
According to negative affect escape model, the negative affect and violence increase as the temperature increase up to a certain level of inflection. When this inflection level is surpassed, the model predicts that there is a decrease in the level of violence as temperature increases. This is because the motive of escape that is to avoid heat it will override their motives of aggression. According to Affective Aggression Model of Anderson, which take many factors into account which also include temperature. This model state that there are other input factors like situational and personal that determined arousal, cognitions and state of affect in an individual. Unlike the former model, this model of aggression predicts a linear relationship between the violence and temperature with no inflection level to be considered (Dew, 2017).
Temperature theory of aggression somewhat supports the theory of aggression that due rise in temperature, there are factors that contribute to rising in aggression in an individual. Temperature does contribute to aggression in the human being but it does not give rise to motives behind the murder. Therefore, it cannot be said that temperature theory of aggression fully supports the results of given data.
c. Explain whether socio-cultural or learned theory of aggression provides support to above result.
Learned theory of aggression states that people learned from each other either through observation, modeling or imitation. The theory found to form the bridge between the cognitive learning and behavioralist as it encompasses motivation, attention, and memory. It considered that personality of an individual is an interaction between three elements such as behaviors, environment and psychological processes of one. The theory believed that there is reciprocal determinism that is the behaviour of a person and environment cause each other. The behaviorism state that environment of one is the cause of behavior of another one. In the same way, the behavior is the cause of environment as well. It is clear that people learned from each other through observing behaviour of others, attitudes, and consequences of that behaviours. The learned theory of sociology help explains that behavior of human is the results of the reciprocal interaction between the environmental, cognitive and behavioral influences (Healy & Moody, 2014).
The learned theory of sociology related to aggression clearly defined the components responsible for the rise in aggression in the individual. It also explained that learned behavior developed motivation which results in imitation of other actions. This is the main cause of murders in most countries as people are imitating and learning from their environment which is the cause of such rise in murders. This can be seen in the above that data gathered.
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• Two areas of the brain and its role in inhibiting aggression.
• Role of genes and biochemical influence.
• Why people who are intoxicated behave more aggressively?
The neutral mechanism is the factor which helps in the process of identifying the aggressiveness of an individual (Robinson, 2016). There are some factors which affect the aggressiveness. The measuring scale of behavioral change is known as the neutral mechanism.
Two areas of brain
In the process of generating the aggression, the human brain has an important role to play. There are two parts of the human brain which generate the feelings for aggressive behavior change. The behavior change of an individual is dependent on the Amygdala and Hippocampus. The Amygdala is a part of the brain which is situated at the internal part of the temporal lobe. The Amygdala generates the feelings of love, emotion, mood change, fear, and rage. The Amygdala generates a signal to the brain to react in a situation with aggressive behavior.
On the other hand, Hippocampus is another part of the brain which stores memory and stores the part behavior in the same kind of situation. The Hippocampus analyzes the situation and produce the reaction as per the past experience.
In the part of producing the aggressive behavior, the genes have an important role to play. The behavior of a human is very much dependent on the genes. The genetics of the human influences the change in behavior. Sometimes the human adopts some reaction and feelings with the help of the genetic influences. The family and the society help in the process of forming the behavior and this part also provides the aggressive behavior.
There are also some biochemical elements which fuel the aggressiveness of a human being. The consumption of alcohol is a part of the biochemical influence which fuels the aggressiveness of a human. Too much consumption of alcohol produces the aggressive behavior. Moreover, the amount of testosterone hormone also matters in the process of generating the aggressiveness. The high amount of testosterone in the blood system of a human increases the aggressive behavior of an individual.
The consumption of alcohol affects the human nature (psychologyrevisiona2.blogspot.in, 2017). The most common phenomenon of consuming the alcohol is the increasing rate of aggressiveness of an individual. The alcohol influences the brain function. It hampers the brain and heightens the feelings and emotions by which it makes the human impulsive and as a result, it causes the aggressive behavior. The alcohol is not responsible for the aggressive behavior; the psychology of a human also plays a role in the consumption of alcohol. The disturbed psychology of a human affects the Amygdala and dysfunction of Amygdala after consuming the alcohol produces the aggressive behavior. Moreover, when an addicted person stops drinking alcohol after a long time, it affects the brain of that person.
Q4. Why/how particular things were interesting in this course.
The lifespan development chapter of the sociology is the most interesting part. The study of the human lifespan development helps in the process of identifying the behavior and the psychology of an individual (Smith, 2016). Moreover, the study of this topic helps in the process of identifying the human interaction in relation to the situation. This chapter helps in the study of the development process of a human from birth to death. Moreover, the study helps in the development of the psychology of human (Vannini, 2016).
The study of human behavior helps in the process of understanding the impact of some factors which affects the psychological development of a human. Moreover, the study helps in the process of developing the mentality of a human which helps in the process of analyzing a situation, understanding the situation and reacting as per the situation. With the help of the study, anyone can understand the behavior of a person and it will help in the future developmental process. Additionally, the study will help in the personal developmental process. The improvement of the personal skills will help in the future progress.
Moreover, the study will help an individual to control the emotion and control the brain function (Cockerham, 2014). The function of the brain is a major part which drives the behavior of an individual. The study will help in the process of developing the developing the human psychology which includes the development of thinking. The study helps in the process of generating and amplifying the moral thinking of an individual. The study of the topic improves the ethics of a person and it helps in the process of changing the conservative view on the social events (Davis, 2016). The study of the chapter also deals with the cultural part of the society.
It shows the importance of the culture on the human behavior development and the impact of culture on the psychological development of a person. The study helps in the process of promoting and developing the healthcare sector of the society and it also helps in the process of developing the society with basic needs. The study of psychology helps in the process of identifying the reason for the aggressive behavior and the study helps in the process resolving the aggression problem. The study also helps in the process of identifying the business operation of a company. Moreover, the study also helps in the process of analyzing the business market for the company, which helps the company to gain the competitive advantage in the business operation. Moreover, the company also gets the chance to produce products and modify the organizational structure with the help of the study.
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